General Information Sources

The information on this page is taken from the bibliographic entries themselves, linked to each entry.

Coherence of the information is tied to the use of a custom-built Web Ontology Language (OWL, see Wikipedia) ontology (or "vocaulary") which I have called "ethno". It can be downloaded here: A comprehensive description of the ontology is also available here:

Other Online Sources

Much of the information presented on this website is sourced from various online databases made available free of charge by several organisations. They are listed here:

Language Data

Language data is taken from The Glottolog 4.4 database is edited by Hammarström Harald, Forkel Robert, Haspelmath Martin and Bank Sebastian, is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. The data was retreived from the github repository that presents the data in CLDF format at, in particular the file was used to populate the geocoded set of languages used herein, by extracting living languoids (see

Mapping Data

Locating the research sites was done using the T504 series maps from the US Army Map Service, made available online by the University of Texas at Austin library at The Papua New Guinea series is available online at this address: Maps SA 56-9 Kavieng, SA 56-10 Mabua, SA 56-14 Namatanai and SA 56-15 Samo were used to pinpoint the locations of research villages and hamlets, then corelated with OpenStreetMap data at, which is © OpenStreetMap contributors, and licensed under the Open Data Commons Open Database License (ODbL) by the OpenStreetMap Foundation (OSMF).

Important Notice About Linguistic Boundaries

The overlay map presenting the language areas that is presented on the front page of this site is the author's own good faith attempt to indicate where a majority of inhabitants speak the languages in question. The lines on this map are not intended to be, and should not be taken to signify, any other type of division. They are not territorial boundaries. They do not indicate ethnic, religious, nor cultural divisions. They are not administrative boundaries.

The polygons on this overlay were created by georeferencing a language map produced by the Summer Institute of Linguistics, available at, and cross-checking boundaries with published works. In particular, the delimitations between predominantly Nalik, Kuot and Notsi-speeking communities was estimated using the following sources:

Lindström Eva, 2002, Topics in the grammar of Kuot: a non-Austronesian language of New Ireland, Papua New Guinea, Stockholm, Department of Linguistics, Stockholm University, p. 30.

Nicholas Gertrude, 2019, ‘Emergent Writing in Notsi in Papua New Guinea‘, in Ari Sherris and Joy Kreeft Peyton (ed.), Teaching writing to children in indigenous languages: instructional practices from global contexts, New York, Routledge : 89‑103, p. 93)

Beaumont Clive H., 1972, ‘New Ireland languages: a review’, in Papers in Linguistics of Melanesia No. 3, Canberra, ANU : 1‑42, p. 16 & 17 (maps).

Volker Craig A., 1998, The Nalik language of New Ireland, Papua New Guinea, New York, Peter Lang, p. 18, 25, 27 (note b).